Fahad Alshehri, Mohammed Alshehri, Terrence Sumague, Abdurahman Niazy, John Jansen, Jeroen van den Beucken and Hamdan Alghamdi
Dental implants with surface-porous designs have been recently developed. Clinically, peri-implant bone grafting is expected to promote early osseointegration and bone ingrowth when applied with surface-porous dental implants in challenging conditions. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze peri-implant bone healing around solid implants and surface-porous implants with and without peri-implant bone grafting, using biomechanical and histomorphometrical assessment in a goat iliac bone model. A total of 36 implants (4.1 mm wide, 11.5 mm long) divided into three groups, solid titanium implant (STI; n = 12), porous titanium implants (PTI; n = 12) and PTI with peri-implant bone grafting using biphasic calcium phosphate granules (PTI + BCP; n = 12), were placed bilaterally in the iliac crests of six goats. The goats were sacrificed seven weeks post-operatively and then subjected to biomechanical (n = 6 per group) and histomorphometrical (n = 6 per group) assessment. The biomechanical assessment revealed no significant differences between the three types of implants. Although the peri-implant bone-area (PIBA%) measured by histomorphometry (STI: 8.63 ± 3.93%, PTI: 9.89 ± 3.69%, PTI + BCP: 9.28 ± 2.61%) was similar for the three experimental groups, the percentage of new bone growth area (BGA%) inside the porous implant portion was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the PTI group (10.67 ± 4.61%) compared to the PTI + BCP group (6.50 ± 6.53%). These data demonstrate that peri-implant bone grafting around surface-porous dental implants does not significantly accelerate early osseointegration and bone ingrowth.
DOI LINK: 10.3390/ma12213606