Ali AlRahlah, H. Fouad, Mohamed Hashem, Abdurahman A Niazy, Abdulhakeem AlBadah
Currently, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most popular denture base material. Most fractures of dentures that occur during function are due to its insufficient mechanical strength. The major drawbacks of PMMA are insufficient ductility, strength, and viscoelastic behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a polymethylmethacrylate denture base material modified with TiO₂ nanoparticles in terms of nanomechanical, creep-recovery, and relaxation. Additionally, the effects of addition TiO₂ nanoparticles on the thermal and antimicrobial adhesion behaviors were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the effect of small amounts of TiO₂ nanoparticles (1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. %) on the degradation behavior of PMMA denture bases was insignificant. The nanomechanical test results of the PMMA and PMMA/TiO₂ nanocomposites indicated that the hardness and modulus in the nanoscale range improved due to TiO₂ addition. At a 1200-nm penetration depth, the modulus increased by 10%, 16%, and 29% and hardness increased by 18%, 24%, and 35% with the addition of 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. % TiO₂, respectively. Furthermore, the creep-recovery and relaxation behaviors of PMMA were significantly improved due to the addition of TiO₂. The creep strain decreased from 1.41% to 1.06%, 0.66%, and 0.49% with the addition of 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. % TiO₂, respectively. The relaxation test results showed that the initial stress under 1% strain improved to 19.9, 21.2, and 22 MPa with the addition of 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, and 3 wt. % TiO₂, respectively. The improvement in the nanohardness, modulus, creep recovery, and relaxation behavior of PMMA due to the addition of TiO₂ nanoparticles indicated the role of the nanoparticles in increasing the PMMA matrix stiffness by reducing its mobility and free volume. TiO₂ nanoparticles also improved the antimicrobial behavior of PMMA by significantly reducing bacterial adherence with increasing TiO₂ ratio.
DOI Link: 10.3390/ma11071096